General Terms

A

Anarchy: A state of society that lacks any governmental control whatsoever.

B

Brinksmanship: The technique or practice of maneuvering a dangerous situation to the limits of tolerance or safety in order to secure the greatest advantage, especially by creating diplomatic crises.

C

Caucus: A meeting in which local members of a political party register their preference among candidates running for office or when these politicians select delegates to attend a major conference that has an immense effect on their party.

Communism: A theory or system of social organization based on the holding of all property in common, actual ownership being ascribed to the community as a whole or to the state.

Conservative Politics: Any political philosophy that favors tradition (in the sense of various religious, cultural or nationally-defined beliefs and customs) in the face of external forces for change, and is critical of proposals for radical social change.

Coup D’etat: A sudden and decisive action in politics, especially one resulting in a change of government illegally or by force.

D

Defection: The desertion of one’s country or cause in favor of another one. The initial desertion has to be considered illegal by the defector’s native country/party for the act to qualify as an official defection.

Democratic Republic: A sovereign state in which its citizens directly vote on the majority of the legislature for that state while also electing representatives who yield more power than regular citizens but are still obligated to vouch for the best interests of their voters and their constituents.

F

Fascism: A governmental system led by a dictator having complete power, forcibly suppressing opposition and criticism, regimenting all industry, commerce, etc., and emphasizing an aggressive nationalism and often racism.

Filibuster: The use of irregular or obstructive tactics by a member of a legislative assembly to prevent the adoption of a measure generally favored or to force a decision against the will of the majority. This is usually accomplished by having a member of the legislature in question give an exceptionally long speech.

G

Gentrification: The process of renovating and improving a house or district so that it conforms to upper and middle-class taste, usually at the expense and relocation of residents in a particular city who no longer generate enough revenue to keep up with rapidly increasing rent rates and house payments that contain a continuously compounding interest rate.

Gerrymandering: The dividing of a state, county, etc., into election districts so as to give one political party a majority in many districts while concentrating the voting strength of the other party into as few districts as possible.

L

Liberal Politics: A political theory founded on the natural goodness of humans and the autonomy of the individual while favoring civil and political liberties, government by law with the consent of the governed, and protection from arbitrary authority. This also includes on emphasis on the sharing of wealth and benefits regardless of one’s race/ethnicity, gender, religion, sexual orientation, socioeconomic situation and any other criteria that might otherwise get that individual discriminated against.

Libertarianism: A political philosophy that affirms the rights of individuals to liberty, to acquire, to keep and to exchange their holdings. This political philosophy considers the protection of individual rights the primary role for the state.

P

Pansexual: Expressing or involving sexuality in all its forms or sexual activity with people of any sexual orientation or gender identity.

Partisanship: The practice of adhering to or supporting a particular person, group, party or cause while also displaying a biased and emotional allegiance.

Political Asylum: The protection granted by a nation to someone who has left their native country as a political refugee or via defection.

R

Referendum: The principle or practice of referring measures proposed or passed by a legislative body or head of state to the vote of the electorate for approval or rejection.

S

Socialism: A theory or system of social organization in which the community as a whole shares ownership of all properties, possessions, capital and the means of production of goods such as staple crops or industrial supplies.

T

Transgender: Noting or relating to a person whose gender identity may contradict that person’s biological sex at birth.